Mycofabricated Silver Nanoparticles: An Overview of Biological Organisms Responsible for its Synthesis
Nida Tabassum Khan* and Maham Jamil Khan
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty
of Life Sciences and Informatics,
Balochistan University of Information
Technology Engineering and Management
- *Corresponding Author:
- Khan NT
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of
Life Sciences and Informatics, Balochistan
University of Information Technology
Engineering and Management Sciences,
Email: [email protected]
Received date: March 22, 2017; Accepted date: April 18, 2017; Published date: April 20, 2017
Citation: Khan NT, Khan MJ. Mycofabricated
Silver Nanoparticles: An Overview of
Biological Organisms Responsible for its
Synthesis. Biochem Mol Biol J. 2017, 3:1.
Silver nanoparticles are the most mentioned nanoparticles with increased production and commercialization along with widespread applications. Several studies revealed that the synthesis of nanoparticle of silver can be accomplished by employing numerous biological organisms such as plants, fungi, bacteria etc. to produce silver nanoparticles of enhanced properties.
Fungi; Silver nanoparticles; Bacteria
Among different nanoparticles, Nanoparticles of silver is the
most mentioned nanoparticle with increased production and
commercialization along with widespread applications. A number
of examples revealed that amalgamation of silver nanoparticles could be accomplished by using biological organisms. Extracellular
synthesis of stable silver nano crystals has been documented
in fungus Aspergillus flavus . Similarly, endophytic fungi
was found to synthesize Silver nanoparticles
at different pH and temperature . Similarly bacterias like
Bacillus species and Brevibacterium casei are well known silver
nanoparticle producers [3,4]. In addition spherical shaped silver
nanoparticles of size 10-25 nm was reported to be synthesize by
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) etc .
Synthetic approaches of silver nanoparticle
Presently there are quite a lot of methods employed in the
fabrication of silver nanoparticles. But these approaches involve
the applications of reducing agents like hydrazine , sodium
borohydride , thiourea , thiophenol , mercaptoacetate
 etc., which are hazardous and damaging to the environment.
Such reducing agents make the synthesis process costly.
Consequently biological synthesis of silver nanoparticle is now
the most eco- friendly and cost effective process.
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle
Bio fabrication of silver nanoparticles could be accomplished
by employing different types of biological organisms such as
bacteria, plants and fungi.
Bacteria in silver nanoparticle synthesis
Silver nanoparticles have been produced by different bacteria
as enlisted in Table 1. Production of uniformly distributed Silver
nanoparticles of size 50nm was reported in Escherichia coli
[11,12]. Furthermore by varying the physiochemical factors such
as pH, temperature, substrate concentration and incubation
time, size of silver nanoparticle could be controlled . On the
other hand extremophilic Ureibacillus thermosphaericus was
explored to have potential to produce silver nanoparticle at raised
temperatures and increased silver ion concentrations. Using a
concentration of 0.01 M AgNO3 at 800°C temperature maximum
yield of Silver nanoparticles could be achieved . Bacillus cereus
, Bacillus thuringiensis  and Corynebacterium strain SH09
 have also been reported to produce Silver nanoparticles. In
another reported study, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus
garvieae and Enterococcus faecium, were used to produce Silver
nanoparticles non-enzymatically through the interaction of
organic compounds present on the surface of the bacterial cell with silver ions. Lactobacillus spp depicts rapid synthesis of Silver
nanoparticles for better silver nanoparticle recovery at high pH
||4 and 5 
||Klebsiella pneumonia (culture supernatant)
||Lactic acid bacteria
||Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259
Table 1: List of bacteria synthesizing silver nanoparticle of various
Plants in silver nanoparticle synthesis
Names of well-known plants are enlisted in (Table 2) which is
recognized as silver nanoparticle producers. Formation of silver
nanoparticles at high temperature of 95°C was reported in
Cardiospermum helicacabum leaf extracts . Similarly rate of
bioreduction is directly proportional to the broth concentration
while studying the production of silver nanoparticle in Curry
leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract . Thus reaction kinetics and
morphology of nanoparticles is affected by precursor solution
(silver nitrate) and reductant (plant extract) concentration 
as depicted during the formation of silver nanoparticle from
an aqueous extract of Pulicaria glutinosa. Silver nanoparticles
synthesis from clove extract  and Aloe vera plant extract
 have also been reported. Myco-nanotechnology is the
fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by employing fungi. This
technology combines nanotechnology with mycology with
extensive potential, mainly due to widespread occurrence and
diversity of fungi [37-45]. Names of well-known fungal species
have been enlisted in Table 3 which is currently recognized as
silver nanoparticle producers [46-59].
||Coriandrumsativum leaf extract
||Glycine max (soybean) leaf extract
Table 2: List of plants synthesizing silver nanoparticle of various size.
||Yeast strain MKY3
||2-5 nm 
Table 3: List of fungi synthesizing silver nanoparticles.
Thus we can conclude that biological organisms such as Fungi,
Bacteria, and plants could be employed as suitable nano-factories
for the biological synthesis of nanoparticles of silver.
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