Aim of the study is to cite the recent research findings about multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells (MSCs) considering their origin, phenotypical and functional characterization as well as being a bio medical ideal candidate for their effective administration in MSC-mediated clinical trials. MSCs were firstly reported by Friedenstein along with his coworkers within the bone marrow of an adult individual categorized as plastic adherent, colony forming fibroblastic cells with capability of reconstituting a hematopoietic medium when grafted in vivo. Gradually with years, it has been revealed that these stromal cells with potential to differentiate in multiple mesenchymal mesodermal and non-mesodermal cell lines like adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes, are not limited to bone marrow cells but are also exclusive part of some other tissues and organs. Many evidences have provided an insight supporting their self-renewal ability combined with their multipotency both in vivo and in vitro and it has exploited their potential in multiorgan engraftment, tissue engineering therapies, immune regulatory properties along with capacity to aid as natural repair mechanism for tissues both in vitro and in vivo. Though, despite this striking spectrum of investigation, many queries regarding their developmental origin, reproducible pluripotency and their in vivo functional mechanism of modeling and remodeling of bones along with tissue mending are yet answerable and a lot of challenges are needed to deal with before administering them in broad clinical prosecutions.
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